Tech Jargon: Videos and Display

Written by | Tech

Since the invention of TV, 79 years ago, there have been a lot of innovations and advancements with regards to TV, displays and videos. With these advancements, comes new and sometimes confusing terminology.

I have list some if not all of the jargons.terminology that covers most of these advancements on videos and displays.

1. 1080p: is the shorthand name for a category of HDTV video modes. The number 1080 represents 1,080 lines of vertical resolution (1,080 horizontal scan lines), while the letter p stands for progressive scan (meaning the image is not interlaced). 1080p can be referred to as full HD or full high definition although 1080i is also “Full HD” (1920×1080 pixels). The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a horizontal resolution of 1920 pixels

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2. 720p: is the shorthand name for a category of HDTV video modes. The number 720 stands for the 720 horizontal scan lines of display resolution (also known as 720 pixels of vertical resolution), while the letter p stands for progressive scan or non-interlaced. When broadcast at 60 frames per second, 720p features the highest temporal (motion) resolution possible under the ATSC standard. Progressive scanning reduces the need to prevent flicker by filtering out fine details, so spatial resolution (sharpness) is much closer to 1080i than the number of scan lines would suggest.

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3. AVCHD or Advanced Video Codec High Definition: a file/format for the recording and playback of high definition video.

The format has been jointly developed by Sony and Panasonic. In 2005, the two companies combined their efforts in creating a high definition format for tapeless consumer camcorders. Announced in 2006, the format allows recording high definition video onto 8cm DVD discs, SD/SDHC memory cards, “Memory Stick” cards and hard disk drives.

AVCHD has been designed to be compatible with Blu-ray Disc format and can be used for authoring and distribution of high definition video, though with reduced quality and interactivity compared to Blu-ray Disc.

Read more >> AVCHD

4. Blu-ray (BD): sometimes called “Blu-ray” is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the standard DVD format. Its main uses are for storing high-definition video, PlayStation 3 video games, and other data, with up to 25 GB per single layered, and 50 GB per dual layered disc. The disc has the same physical dimensions as standard DVDs and CDs.

The name Blu-ray Disc derives from the blue-violet laser used to read the disc. While a standard DVD uses a 650 nanometer red laser, Blu-ray uses a shorter wavelength, a 405 nm blue-violet laser, and allows for almost six times more data storage than a DVD.

Read more >> Blu-ray

5. CRT or Cathode Ray Tube : a vacuum tube containing an electron gun (a source of electrons) and a fluorescent screen, with internal or external means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam, used to create images in the form of light emitted from the fluorescent screen. The image may represent electrical waveforms (oscilloscope), pictures (television, computer monitor), radar targets and others.

Read more >> Cathode Ray Tube

6. DLP or Digital Light Processing : is a trademark owned by Texas Instruments, representing a technology used in some TVs and video projectors. It was originally developed in 1987 by Dr. Larry Hornbeck of Texas Instruments.

DLP is used in DLP front projectors (small standalone projection units) and DLP rear projection television.

Read more >> Digital Light Processing

7. H.264/MPEG-4 AVC: To put it in simple terms, this is a standard used for video compression.

H.264/AVC is the latest block-oriented motion-compensation-based codec standard developed by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), and it was the product of a partnership effort known as the Joint Video Team (JVT). The ITU-T H.264 standard and the ISO/IEC MPEG-4 AVC standard (formally, ISO/IEC 14496-10 – MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding) are jointly maintained so that they have identical technical content. H.264 is most popular for its use on Blu-ray Disc, HD DVD and videos from the iTunes Store.

Read more >> H.264/MPEG-4 AVC

8. HDV: a format for recording and playback of high-definition video on a DV cassette tape.

The format was originally developed by JVC and was supported by Sony, Canon and Sharp. The four companies formed the HDV consortium in September 2003. Conceived as an affordable high definition format, HDV quickly caught on with many professional users due to its low cost, portability and image quality acceptable for many professional productions.

Read more >> HDV

9. HQ: Simply means High Quality Videos. You can usually see this on most online videos like Youtube, Vimeo or, that uses 640×480 resolution or more..

Read more >> HQ

10. LCD or Liquid Crystal Display: a thin, flat panel used for electronically displaying information such as text, images, and moving pictures. Its uses include monitors for computers, televisions, instrument panels, and other devices ranging from aircraft cockpit displays, to every-day consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones.

Read more >> LCD

11. LED or Light-Emitting Diode: light-emitting diode (LED) (pronounced /??l.i?’di?/, or just /l?d/), is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infra red wavelengths, with very high brightness.

Read more >> LED

12. Megapixels: is 1 million pixels, and is a term used not only for the number of pixels in an image, but also to express the number of image sensor elements of digital cameras or the number of display elements of digital displays.

For example, a camera with an array of 2048×1536 sensor elements is commonly said to have “3.1 megapixels” (2048 × 1536 = 3,145,728). The neologism sensel is sometimes used to describe the elements of a digital camera’s sensor, since these are picture-detecting rather than pictur
e-producing elements.

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13. NTSC or National Television System Committee : is the analog television system used in most of the Americas, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Burma, and some Pacific island nations and territories (see map). NTSC is also the name of the U.S. standardization body that developed the broadcast standard. The first NTSC standard was developed in 1941 and had no provision for color TV.

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14. OLED or Organic Light-Emitting Diode: Similar to LED but OLED came from organize compounds like the one from fireflies. Also known as light emitting polymer (LEP) and organic electro luminescence (OEL), is a light-emitting diode (LED) whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds. The layer usually contains a polymer substance that allows suitable organic compounds to be deposited. They are deposited in rows and columns onto a flat carrier by a simple “printing” process. The resulting matrix of pixels can emit light of different colors.

Read more >> OLED

15. PAL or Phase Alternating Line: an analogue television encoding system used in broadcast television systems in large parts of the world. Other common analogue television systems are SECAM and NTSC. This page primarily discusses the colour encoding system. See the articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television for additional discussion of frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation. For discussion of the 625-line / 25 frame per second television standard, see 576i.

Read more >> PAL

16. Pixels: a single point in a raster image. Pixels are normally arranged in a 2-dimensional grid, and are often represented using dots or squares. Each pixel is a sample of an original image, where more samples typically provide more-accurate representations of the original. The intensity of each pixel is variable; in color systems, each pixel has typically three or four components such as red, green, and blue, or cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.

Pixel a contraction of pix (“pictures”) and el (for “element”).

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17. Plasma Display: a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays (32″ inches or larger). Many tiny cells between two panels of glass hold a mixture of noble gases. The gas in the cells is electrically turned into a plasma which then excites phosphors to emit light. Plasma displays should not be confused with LCDs, another lightweight flatscreen display using different technology.

Read more >> Plasma Display

18. SECAM or Séquentiel Couleur à Mémoire: an analog color television system first used in France. A team led by Henri de France working at Compagnie Française de Télévision (later bought by Thomson) invented SECAM. It is, historically, the first European color television standard.

Read more >> SECAM

19. TFT Display or Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT-LCD): is a variant of liquid crystal display (LCD) which uses thin-film transistor (TFT) technology to improve image quality (e.g., addressability, contrast). TFT LCD is one type of active matrix LCD, though all LCD-screens are based on TFT active matrix addressing. TFT LCDs are used in television sets, computer monitors, mobile phones and computers, handheld video game systems, personal digital assistants, navigation systems, projectors, etc.

Read more >> TFT Display

Source: Wikipedia

Last modified: November 26, 2009

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